Common Methods & Classifications
The common methods for trepanation are:
The scraping technique was probably one of the most common methods and was distributed chronologically from ancient Egypt to the Renaissance period in Italy.
The grooving technique was also frequently used in many parts of the world and is currently still performed in Kenya.
The boring-and-cutting method was used in Peru. It was also described by Celsus in Roman times, then adopted by Arabs, and became standard in the Middle Ages.
A method in which four straight incisions were made was commonly adopted in Peru, but is also
known in Neolithic France, Iron Age Palestine, and modern Africa.